Al-Shabab and fundamental terrorism in Somalia
Threats to the continent and beyond
Keywords:Al-Shabaab, Africa, terrorism, threat, Somalia
This study is motivated by threats faced by Somalia and other countries in fighting terrorism. Although several studies have attempted to explain the rise and dynamics of terrorism groups particularly al-Shabaab, this work is predicated more on how the terrorist activities threaten Africa and beyond informed by how these operations are sustained. This study aims to investigate threats to the continent and beyond by Al-Shabab and Fundamental Terrorism in Somalia. In this study, a content analysis was used on quantitative and qualitative data obtained from publicly available datasets and secondary sources of research work on terrorism. The main contribution of this study is that, terrorism by the al-Shabaab is highly organized and that by skirting direct combat, the group has the potential for sustained fighting episodes despite waged campaigns to deter its spread. This is exacerbated by the reluctance to deploy many infantry forces from conventional armies to deal with the situation. The study may be useful to policymakers, terrorism experts, and scholars in accelerating measures of counter-terrorism.
ABC. (2009, September 14). Exclusive: US Launches Military Strike in Somalia Against all Qaeda Target. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/us-forces-somalia-kill-saleh-ali-nabhan-commando/story?id=8569619
ACLU. (2016, August 6). U.S. Releases Drone Strike ‘Playbook’ in Response to ACLU Lawsuit. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from www.aclu.org/news/usreleases-drone-strike-playbook-response-aclu-lawsuit
AI. (1995, November). Somalia: Building human rights in the disintegrated state, (AI Index: AFR 52/03/95). Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/196000/afr520011992en.pdf
Aid, M. (2016). Why Al-Shabaab Survives: Somali Security Forces Still Corrupt and Not Combat Ready. Retrieved January 30, 2020, from http://www.matthewaid.com/post/140850667581/why-al-shabaab-survives-somalisecurity-forces
Alexander, L., & McKeown, T. J. (1985). Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decision Making. In R. F. Coulam, & R. A. Smith (Eds.), Advances in Information Processing in Organizations: A Research Annual, Vol. II (p. 35). Greenwich, Conn: AI Press.
AlJazeera. (2016a, March 12). Arab League Labels Hezbollah a “Terrorist” Group. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/arableague-labels-hezbollah-terrorist-group-160311173735737.html
BIJ. (n.d). Somalia. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/projects/drone-war/somalia
Bradbury, M., & Healy, S. (February, 2010). Endless War: a brief history of the Somalia conflict, Accord, Issue 21. Retrieved April 11, 2021, https://www.c-r.org/accord/somalia/endless-war-brief-history-somali-conflict
CBS. (2007, January 8). U.S. Strikes in Somalia Reportedly Kill 31. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/us-strikes-in-somalia-reportedly-kill-31/
CFR. (2019, January 31). Al-Shabab. Retrieved January 25, 2020, from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/al-shabab
CSIS. (2011, July). Al-Shabaab. Retrieved January 2020, from , https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/legacy_files/files/publication/110715_Wise_AlShabaab_AQAM%20Futures%20Case%20Study_WEB.pdf
Cunningham, W. (2003). Terrorism Definitions and Typologies’, Terrorism:Concepts, Causes, and Conflict Resolution. Advanced Systems and Concepts Office Defense Threat Reduction Agency and Working Group on War Violence and Terrorism Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution. George Mason University.
Davis, J. (2010). ‘The Evolving Terrorist Threat in Africa. In J. Davis (Ed.), Terrorism in Africa: The Evolving Front in the War on Terror (pp. 1-18). Plymouth: Lexington Books.
DIS. (2017, March). South and Central Somalia: Security situation, al-Shabab presence, and Target Groups. Retrieved February 1, 2020, from , https://www.nyidanmark.dk/NR/rdonlyres/57D4CD96-E97D-4003-A42A-C119BE069792/0/South_and_Central_Somalia_Report_March_2017.pdf
Gaffey, C. (2016a, April 6). Boko Haram Says “No Surrender” in Latest Video. Newsweek. Retrieved January 29, 2020, from http://www.newsweek.com/boko-haram-says-no-surrender-latest-video-444526
Ghaddar, H. (2016, April 6). One of the World’s Most Dangerous Terror Organizations has “Gone Corporate: Business Insider. Retrieved February 2, 2019, from http://www.businessinsider.com/hezbollah-has-gone-corporate-2016–4
Gunaratna, R. (2009). Terrorism: A Unique Form of Violence. In N. Loucks, S. Holt, & A. Joanna (Eds.), Why We Kill: Understanding Violence Across Cultures and Disciplines (pp. 148-158). London: Middlesex University Press.
Hansen, S. J. (2013). Al Shabaab in Somalia: The History and Ideology of a Militant Islamist Group, 2005-2012. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herald. (2017). ‘Somalia’s Presidential Poll on’, 7 February. Retrieved January 30, 2020, from http://www.herald.co.zw/somalias-presidential-poll-on/
HRW. (2010). Harsh War, Harsh Peace: Abuses by al-Shabab, the Transitional Federal Government, and AMISOM in Somalia. Retrieved January 24, 2020, from https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/somalia0410webwcover_0.pdf
ICG. (2016, February 11). Somalia: Why is Al-Shabaab Still A Potent Threat?,. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/horn-africa/somalia/somalia-why-al-shabaab-still-potential-threat
ICG. (2018, September 21). Al-Shabaab Five Years after Westgate: Still a Menace in East Africa,. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/horn-africa/kenya/265-al-shabaab-five-years-after-westgate-still-menace-east-africa
Independent. (2016). ‘Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Who is the Terror Group Reportedly behind the Ivory Coast Shooting?’. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/alqaeda-in-maghreb-aqim-terror-group-who-where-a6929276.html
Jaffe, G., & DeYoung, K. (2011, June 29). U.S. Drone Targets Two Leaders of Somali Group Allied With al-Qaeda. Retrieved January 23, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/national-security/us-drones-target-two-leaders-of-somali-group-allied-with-al-qaeda/2011/06/29/AGJFxZrH_story.html?utm_term=.b369e043dff9
Kaptiejns, L. (2013). Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Karimi, F. (2013). Kenya mall attack: Military says most hostages freed, death toll at 68. CNN. Retrieved January 30, 2020, from http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/22/world/africa/kenya-mall-attack/>
Khader, M., Neo, S. L., Gabriel, O., Eunice, M. T., & Jeffery, C. (2016). Preface. In M. Khader, S. L. Neo, O. Gabriel, M. T. Eunice, & C. Jeffery (Eds.), Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era (p. xxi). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
Laing, A. (2016, January 12). How Al-Qaeda and Islamic State are Competing for Al-Shabaab in Somalia’, The Telegraph,. Retrieved January 15, 2020, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/12015075/How-al-Qaeda-and-Islamic-State-are-fighting-for-al-Shabaab-affections-in-Somalia.html
Maruf, H., & Joseph, D. (2018). Inside Al-Shabaab: The Secret History of Al-Qaeda’s Most Powerful Ally. Indiana: Indiana University Press.
Monnier, O., & Hassane, S. (2016). Boko Haram’s Latest Recruitment Target: The Unemployed’, Huffington Post,. Retrieved January 30, 2020, from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016–03–16/young-mendisappear-niger-border-as-militants-recruit-jo bless
Mutanda, D. (2017a). The Rhodesian Air Force in Zimbabwe’s War of Liberation 1966–1980. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.
Mutanda, D. (2017b). What Makes Terrorism Tick in Africa? Evidence from Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram. Jadavpur Journal of International Relations, 21(1), 20–40.
NRC. (2019, February 28). 320,000 Somalis fled conflict and insecurity in 2018. Retrieved February 1, 2020, from https:/www.nrc.no/somali-fled-2018-press-release
NYT. (2006, June 8). Efforts by C.I.A. Fail in Somalia, Officials Charge. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/08/world/africa/08intel.html
NYT. (2011, June 11). Mastermind of 2 U.S. Embassy Bombings is Killed in Somalia. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/12/world/africa/12somalia.html?_r=1&hp
NYT. (2016, October 16). In Somalia, U.S. Escalates a Shadow War,. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/16/world/africa/obama-somalia-secret-war.html;
NYT. (2016, November 27). Obama Expands War with Al Qaeda to Include Shabab in Somalia. Retrieved January 8, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/27/us/politics/obama-expands-war-with-al-qaeda-to-include-shabab-in-somalia.html?module=inline
NYT. (2017, March 30). Trump Eases Combat Rules in Somalia Intended to Protect Civilians. Retrieved January 26, 2020, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/30/world/africa/trump-is-said-to-ease-combat-rules-in-somalia-designed-to-protect-civilians.html
Omar, F. (2017). Ugandan Soldier Executed by Somalia’s Al Shabaab Militants: Video. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-somalia-violence-idUSKBN1 521M3
Online. (2013, May 22). Procedures for Approving Direct Action against Terrorist Targets Located Outside the United States and Areas of Active Hostilities,. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from , https://www.justice.gov/oip/foia-library/procedures_for_approving_direct_action_against_terrorist_targets/download
Pitts, D. E. (2015). New Destinations of Islamic Fundamental Terrorism: The Rise of Al Shabaab. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee .
Reliefweb. (2006, June 5). US Funding Somali Warlords – Intelligence Experts Say. Retrieved January 24, 2020, from https://reliefweb.int/report/somalia/us-
Roque, P. C. (2009). Situation Report: Somalia: Understanding Al-Shabaab. Retrieved January 30, 2020, from < http://www.issafrica.org/publications/situation-reports/ situation-report-somaliaunderstanding-al-shabaab-paula-cristina-roque>
Steinfatt, T., & JanbekD. (2016). Persuasion and Propaganda in War and Terrorism. In M. Khader, L. Neo Seng, O. Gabriel, M. T. Eunice, & C. Jeffery (Eds.), Combating Violent Extremism and Radicalization in the Digital Era (pp. 16-20). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
SU. (2016, March). Mapping Militant Organizations – Islamic Courts Union. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/107
TBIGC. (2017, October 19). What is Al-Shabaab? . Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://institute.global/insight/co-existence/what-al-shabaab
UNDPI. (1997). United Nations Operation in Somalia I. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosomi.htm
UNHCR. (2018a, June). Somalia Factsheet 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from http://reporting.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/UNHCR%20Somalia%20Fact%20Sheet%20-%20June%202018.pdf
UNHCR. (2018b, March 31). CCCM Cluster Somalia Overview. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/cccm_somalia
Weizhong, X., Wensheng, Y., & Lei, W. (2015). An Analysis of the Security Situation in Africa. Institute for Strategic Studies and National Defense University of People’s Liberation Army, China, 1.
Weizhong, X., Wensheng, Y., & Lei, W. (2015). An Analysis of the Security Situation in Africa: International Strategic Relations and China’s National Security. Singapore: World Scientific.
WH. (2016, December 5). Letter from the President – Supplemental 6-month War Powers Letter: Text of a Letter from the President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate,. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/12/05/letter-president-supplemental-6-month-war-powers-letter
WH. (2016, June 13). Letter from the President – War Powers Resolution: Text of A Letter from The President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/06/13/letter-president-war-powers-resolution
Williams, P. (2018). Fight for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007 – 2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Williamson, J. (2016). Protection of Civilians under International Humanitarian. In W. Haidi, M. Ralph, S. Scott, & W. Marc (Eds.), Protection of Civilians (pp. 170-178). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wired. (2011, November 15). Empty Threat of Drones Saved the CIA in Somalia. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from https://www.wired.com/2011/11/us-somalia-cia/
WP. (2016, January 19). Three Things We Learned From Last Week’s Al-Shabaab Attack in Somalia. Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/01/19/three-things-we-learned-from-last-weeks-al-
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Chigudu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to IJRBS agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution- 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. Authors retain the copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to IJRBS. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. The authors agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other languages, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication