A retrospective view from traditional to boundaryless career and career success

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i3.1131

Keywords:

Boundaryless career, Physical Mobility, Psychological mobility, Career Competencies, Career Success, Career management

Abstract

An increasingly dynamic career context has changed the nature of careers and led to the emergence of more autonomous and self-directed boundaryless careers. The common idea in different forms of boundaryless careers is mobility. Psychologically and physically mobile individuals start to manage their own careers in terms of their personal pursuits. In such a career environment, the nature of career success has also changed. The importance of subjective career success has been emphasized more than objective career success because only individuals themselves can meaningfully define and assess their career success with reference to their own self-defined standards, needs, and values in such an unstable environment. With the transmission of career responsibility to the individuals, the need to develop career competencies as knowing why competencies, knowing whom competencies, and knowing how competencies emerge in order to survive and become successful. This study reviews career concept and the new perspectives as a boundaryless career within a constantly changing environment which makes it impossible to become successful unless gaining new competencies and survival methods and the new perspectives on career success with a growing increase in subjective career success instead of objective career success

References

Altman, B. W., & Post, J. E. (1996). Beyond the social contract: An analysis of the executive view at twenty-five larger companies. (D. T. Hall, Ed.). The career is dead – long live the career. Jossey Bass. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED404482

Arnold, J., & Cohen, L. (2008). The psychology of careers in industrial and organizational settings: A critical but appreciative analysis. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. 23, 1- 44. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470773277.ch1

Arthur, M. B. (1994). The Boundaryless career: A New perspective for organizational inquiry. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15, 295-306. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2488428

Arthur, M. B., Claman, P. H., & DeFilipp, R. J. (1995). Intelligent enterprise, intelligent careers. Academy of Management Executive. 9, 7-22. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.1995.9512032185

Arthur, M. B., Hall, D. T., & Lawrence, B. S. (Eds.). (1989). Handbook of career theory. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459

Arthur, M. B., & Lawrence, B. S. (1984). Environment and career. Special Issue of Journal of Occupational Behavior. 5(1), 1-81. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3000305

Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (Eds.). (1996). The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. Oxford University Press.

Arthur, M.B., Khapova, S.N., & Wilderom, C.PM. (2005). Career success in a boundaryless career world. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26(2), 177-202. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.290

Armenakis, A. A., & Bedeian, A.G. (1999). Organizational change: A review of theory and research in the 1990’s. Journal of Management. 25(3), 293-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639902500303

Aycan, Z., Al-Hamadi, A. B., Davis, A., & Budhwar, P. (2007). Cultural orientations and preferences for HRM policies and practices: The case of Oman. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 18(1), 11-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190601068243

Bailyn, L. (1980). The ‘slow burn’ way to the top: Some thoughts on the early years in organizational careers. (C.B. Derr, Ed.), Work, family, and the career: New frontiers in theory and research. Praeger.

Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the mold: Women, men, and time in the new corporate world. Free Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393723

Baker, T., & Aldrich, H. E. (1996). Prometheus stretches: Building identity and cumulative knowledge in multi-employer careers. (M. B. Arthur, & D. M. Rousseau Eds.). The boundaryless career: The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. Oxford University Press.

Barnett, B.R., & Bradley, L. (2007). The impact of organizational support for career development on career satisfaction. Career Development International. 12(7), 617-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430710834396

Bartolome, F., & Evans, P.A.L. (1980). Must success cost so much? Harvard Business Review. 58, 137-148. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430710834396

Baruch, Y. (2006). Career development in organizations and beyond: Balancing traditional and contemporary viewpoints. Human Resources Management Review. 16, 125-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.002

Batt, R. (1996). From bureaucracy to enterprise? The changing jobs and careers of managers in telecommunications service. (P. Osterman Ed.). Broken ladders: Managerial careers in the new economy. Oxford University Press. https://hdl.handle.net/1813/77053

Beckman, S.L. (1996). Evolution of management roles in a networked organization. (P. Osterman Ed.). Broken Ladders: Managerial careers in the new economy. Oxford University Press.

Beer, M. (1999). Leading learning and learning to lead: An action learning approach to developing organizational fitness. (J. A. Conger, G. M Spreitzer, & Edward E. Lawler III. Eds.). Leader’s change handbook: An essential guide to setting direction and taking action. Jossey Bass. https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=49939

Belcourt, M. (2006). Outsourcing: The benefits and the risks. Human Resource Management Review. 16, 269-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.011

Blau, P. M., & Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. Wiley. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED066526

Bird, A. (1994). Careers as repositories of knowledge: A new perspective on boundaryless careers. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15, 325-344. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150404

Bird, A. (1996). Careers as repositories of knowledge: Considerations for boundaryless careers. (M. B. Arthur, & D. M. Rousseau Eds.). The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. Oxford University Press.

Brousseau, K. R., Driver, M. J., Eneroth, K., & Larsson, R. (1996). Career pandemonium: Realigning organizations and individuals. Academy of Management Executive. 10, 52-66. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4165353

Carson, K. D., Carson, P. P., Phillips, J. S., & Roe, C. W. (1996). A career entrenchment model: Theoretical development and empirical outcomes. Journal of Career Development. 22, 273-288. https://doi.org/10.1177/089484539602200405

Cascio, W.F. (1993). Downsizing: What do we know? What have we learned? The Executive. 7(1), 95-104. https://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4165111

Cascio, W.F. (1995). Whither industrial and organizational psychology in a changing world of work? American Psychologist. 50, 928-936. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.11.928

Chew, I.K.H., & Zhu, W. (2002). Factors influencing Singapore managers’ career aspiration in international assignments. Career Development International. 7(2), 96-108. https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430210421623

Cohen, L. (2001). Careers. (T. Redman, & A. Wilkinson, Eds.). Contemporary human resource management. Prentice Hall.

Clarke, M. (2013). The organizational career: Not dead but in need of redefinition. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 24(4), 684-703. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.697475

Currie, G., Tempest, S., & Starkey, K. (2006). New careers for old? Organizational and individual responses to changing boundaries. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 17(4), 755-774. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190600581733

Dany, F., Mallon, M., & Arthur, M.B. (2010). The odyssey of career and the opportunity for international comparison. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 14(5), 705-712. https://doi.org/10.1080/0958519032000080758

Davis, S. J., Haltiwanger, J. C., & Schuh, S. (1997). Job creation and destruction. MIT Press.

DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1994). The boundaryless career: A competency based perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15, 307-324. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150403

DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (Eds). (1996). Boundaryless context and careers: A competency-based perspective. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150403

Delecta, P. (2011). Work-life balance. International Journal of Current Research. 3(4), 186-189. http://www.journalcra.com

DiRenzo, M. (2010). An examination of the roles of protean career orientation and career capital work and life outcomes, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Drexel University.

DiRenzo, M. S., & Greenhaus, J. H. (2011). Job search and voluntary turnover in a boundaryless world: A control theory perspective. Academy of Management Journal. 36 (3), 567-589. 10.5465/AMR.2011.61031812

Doeringer, P. B., & Piore, M. J. (1971). Internal labor markets and manpower analysis. Heath. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED048457.pdf

Eby, L., Butts M., & Lockwood A. (2003). Predictors of success in the era of the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 24, 689-708. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.214

El-Sawad, A. (2005). Becoming a ‘lifer’? Unlocking career through metaphor. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. 78, 23-41. https://doi.org/10.1348/0963117904X22917

Featherman, D. L., & Hauser, R. M. (1978). Opportunity and change. Academic.

Feldman, D.C. (1995). The impact of downsizing on organizational career development activities and employee career development opportunities. Human Resource Management Review. 5(3), 189-221. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(95)90002-0

Galinsky, E., & Friedman, D. (1993). National study of the changing workforce. Families & Work Institute. https://doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822(95)90002-0

Gattiker, U.E., & Larwood, L. (1988). Predictors of managers’ career mobility, success, and satisfaction. Human Relations. 41, 569-591. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678804100801

Gilley, M.K., & Rasheed, A. (2000). Making more by doing less: An analysis of outsourcing and its effects on firm performances. Journal of Management. 26(4), 763-790. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600408

Glasser, B. G., & Strauss, A. (1971). Status passage: A formal theory. Aldine.

https://www.routledge.com/Status-Passage/Strauss/p/book/9780202363387

Goffee, R., & Scase, R. (1992). Organizational change and the corporate career: The restructuring of managers job aspirations. Human Relations. 45, 363-385. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500404

Goodman, P.S. (1974). An examination of referents used in the evaluation of pay. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. 12, 170-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(74)90045-2

Govindarajan, V. (1986). Decentralization, strategy, and effectiveness of strategic business units in multibusiness organizations. Academy Management Review. 11(4), 844-856. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1986.4284099

Greenhaus, J. H. (2003). Career dynamics. (W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski, Eds.). Comprehensive handbook of psychology. (Vol.12) Industrial and Organizational Psychology. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard-Klimoski/publication/267796178_Handbook_of_Industrial_and_Organizational_Psychology/links/55366e590cf268fd00183fce/Handbook-of-Industrial-and-Organizational-Psychology.pdf

Greenhaus, J. H., Callagan, G. A., & Godshalk V.M. (2010). Career management, (4th Edn.). Sage Publications.

Greenhaus, J. H., Callanan, G. A., & DiRenzo, M. S. (2008). A boundaryless perspective on careers. (C. L. Cooper, & J. Barling, Eds.). Handbook of organizational behavior. Sage Publications.

Greenhaus, J.H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W.M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance, evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal. 33(1), 64-85. https://doi.org/10.5465/256352

Holland, J.L. (1985). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. Prentice-Hall. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1997-08980-000

Kaufmann, H. (1960). The forest ranger: A study in administrative behavior. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Parasuraman, S., Greenhaus, J. H., & Linnehan, F. (2000). Time, person-career fit, and the boundaryless career. (C.L. Cooper, & D.M. Rousseau, Eds.). Trends in organizational behavior. John Wiley & Sons.

Gaertner, K. N. (1989). Winning and losing: Understanding managers' reactions to strategic change. Human Relations. 42, 527-546. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678904200604

Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strengths of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology. 78, 1360-1380. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2776392

Gubler, M, Arnold, J., & Coombs, C. (2014). Reassessing the protean career concept: Empirical findings, conceptual components, and measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 35, 23-40. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1908

Gunz, H.P., & Heslin, P.A. (2005). Reconceptualizing career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26 (2), 105-111. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4093973

Hall, D. T. (2002). Careers in and out of organizations. Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231174

Hall, D. T. (1996). The new role of the career practitioner. (D. T. Hall, Ed.). The career is dead – long live the career. Jossey-Bass. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED404482

Hall, D. T. (1976). Careers in organizations. Goodyear.

Hall, D. T., & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26, 155-176. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4093976

Hall, D. T., & Moss, J. E. (1998). The new protean career contract: Helping organizations and employees to adapt. Organizational Dynamics. 26, 22-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(98)90012-2

Handy, C. (1994). The empty raincoat: Making sense of the future. Hutchinson.

Harley, S., Muller-Camen, M., & Collin, A. (2004)., From academic communities to managed organizations: The implications for academic careers in UK and German universities. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 64, 329-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2002.09.003

Heckscher, C. (1995). White collar blues: Management loyalties in an age of corporate restructuring. Basic Books.

Herriot, P., Manning, W. E. G., & Kidd, J. M. (1997). The content of the psychological contract. British Journal of Management. 8, 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.0047

Heslin, P. A. (2005). Conceptualizing and evaluating career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26, 113-136. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.270

Hirsh, W., Jackson C., & Jackson C. (1995). Careers in organisations: Issues for the future. The Institute for Employment Studies.

Hughes, E. C. (1958). Men and their work. Free Press.

Hughes, E. C. (1937). Institutional office and the person. American Journal of Sociology. 43, 404-413. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2768627

Igbaria, M. (1991). Job performance of MIS professionals: An examination of the antecedents and consequences. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management. 8(2), 141-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/0923-4748(91)90027-O

Inkson, K. (2004). Images of career: Nine key metaphors. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 65, 96 – 111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00053-8

Inkson, K. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers as metaphors. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 69, 48-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.09.004

Inkson, K., & Arthur, M. B. (2001). How to be successful career capitalist. Organizational Dynamics. 30 (1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(01)00040-7

Inkson, J, Baruch, Y. (2008). Organizational Careers. (C. Cooper, Ed.). Handbook of organizational behavior. (Vol.2). Macro Approaches. Sage Publications.

Jen Ruei-Fu. (2010). Is information technology career unique? Exploring differences in career commitment and its determinants among IT and Non-IT employees. International Journal of Electronic Business Management. 8(4), 263-271.

Judge, T. A., Cable, D. M., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1995). An empirical investigation of the predictors of executive career success. Personnel Psychology. 48, 485–519. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1995.tb01767.x

Kalleberg, A. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers. American Sociological Review. 74, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400101

Korman, A. K., Wittig-Berman, U., & Lang, D. (1981). Career success and personal failure: Alienation in professionals and managers. Academy of Management Journal. 24(2), 342-360. https://doi.org/10.5465/255846

Kram, K. E. (1996). A relational approach to career development. (D. T. Hall Ed.). The career is dead – long live the career. Jossey-Bass.

Lei, D., & Hitt, M. (1995). Strategic restructuring and outsourcing: The effect of mergers and acquisitions and LBOs on building firm skills and capabilities. Journal of Management. 21(5), 835-859. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639502100502

Levinson, D. (1978). The seasons of a man’s life. Knopf.

Levinson, D. J. (1984). The career is in the life structure, the life structure is in the career: An adult development perspective. (M.B. Arthur, L. Bailyn, D.J. Levinson, H.A. Shephard, Eds) Working With Careers. Columbia University School of Business.

Lin, N., & Dumin, M. (1986). Access to occupations through social ties. Social Networks. 8, 365-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8733(86)90003-1

Maryhofer, W., Meyer, M., Iellatchith, A., & Schiffinger, M. (2004). Careers and human resource management – A European perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 15(1), 180-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2004.10.006

McCall, M.W., Lombardo, M.M., & Morrison, A.M. (1988). The lessons of experience. Lexington Books.

McDougall, M., & Vaughan, E. (1996). Changing expectations of career development: Implications for organizations and for social marketing. Journal of Management Development. 15, 36-46. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719610146248

Miles, R. E., & Snow, C. C. (1996). Twenty first century careers. (M.B. Arthur, & D.M. Rousseau, Eds.). Boundaryless career: A new employment for a new principal era. Oxford University Press.

Mirvis, P.H., & Hall, D.T. (1994). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 15, 365-380. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150406

Mirvis, P. H., & Hall, D. T. (1996). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. (M. B. Arthur, & D. M. Rousseau, Eds.). The boundaryless career: A new employment for a new principal era. Oxford University Press.

Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Top management viewed from below. (J. A. Conger, G. M. Spreitzer, & Edward E. Lawler III., Eds.). Leader’s change handbook: An essential guide to setting direction and taking action. (1st edn.). Jossey Bass.

Mohrman, S. A., & Cohen, S. G. (1995). When people get out of the box: New relationships, new systems. (A. Howard Ed.). Changing nature of work.Jossey-Bass.

Murrel, A. J., Frieze, I. H., & Olson, J. E. (1996). Mobility strategies and career outcomes: A longitudinal study of MBA’s. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 49, 324-225. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.0047

Nelson, R. R., and Winter, S. G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Harvard University Press.

Nicholson, N. (1996). Career System in Crises: Change and opportunity in the information age. Academy of Management. 10(4), 40-54. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4165352

Nicholson, N., & Waal-Andrews W. (2005). Playing to win: Biological imperatives, self-regulation, and trade-offs in the game of career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26, 137-154. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.295

Osterman, R. (1996). Broken Ladders. Oxford University Press.

OUP. (1989). Oxford English dictionary. Oxford University Press.

Parker, H., & Arthur, M. B. (2000). Careers, organizing, and community. (M. A. Peiperl, M. B. Arthur, R. Goffee, & T. Morris, Eds.). Career frontiers: New conceptions of working. Oxford University Press.

Perrow, C. (1996). A bounded career and the demise of the civil society. (M. B. Arthur, & D. M. Rousseau, Eds.). The boundaryless career: A new employment for a new principal era. Oxford University Press.

Porter, G. (1996). Organizational impact of workaholism: Suggestions for researching the negative outcomes of excessive work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 1(1), 70-84. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.1.1.70

Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., & Plamondon, K. E. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: Development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology. 85(4), 612-624. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.4.612

Raider, H. J, & Burt, R. S. (1996). Boundaryless career and social capital. (M. B. Arthur, & D. M. Rousseau, Eds.). Boundaryless career: A new employment for a new principal era. Oxford University Press.

Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreements. Sage Publications.

Rousseau, D.M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal. 2(2), 121-139. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01384942

Rousseau, D. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1995). Changing individual-organizational attachments: A two-way street. (A. Howard, Ed.). Changing nature of work. Jossey-Bass.

Schein, E. H. (1978). Career Dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Addison Wesley.

Schlesinger, A.M. Jr. (1965). A thousand days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Houghton-Mifflin.

Schor, J. (1991). The overworked American: The unexpected decline of leisure. Basic Books.

Scott, E. D., O’Shaughnessy, K .D., & Capelli, P. (1996). Management jobs in the insurance industry. (P. Osterman, Ed.). Broken ladders. Oxford University Press.

Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kramier, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology. 84, 416–427. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.416

Shephard, H. A. (1984). On the realization of human potential: A path with a heart. (M.B. Arthur, L.Bailyn, D.J. Levinson, & H.A. Shephard, Eds.). Working with careers. Columbia University.

Schneider, B., & Hall, D.T. (1972). Correlates of organizational identification as a function of career pattern and organizational type. Academy of Management Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.1972.4981421

Smith, V. (2010). Review article: Enhancing employability: Human, cultural, and social capital in an era of turbulent unpredictability. Human Relations. 63, 279-303. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709353639

Smithson, J., & Lewis, S. (2000). Is job insecurity changing the psychological contract? Personnel Review. 29, 680-702. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480010296465

Srikanth, P.B., & Israel, D. (2012). Career commitment and career success: Mediating role of career satisfaction. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 49(1), 137-149. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23509772

Srikanth, P.B., & Israel, D. (2012). Career commitment and career success: Mediating role of career satisfaction. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations. 49 (1), 137-149. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23509772

Stanek, M.B. (2000). The need for global managers: The business necessity. Management Decision, 38(4), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740010326243

Sullivan, S.E. (1999). The changing nature of Careers: A review and research agenda. Journal of Management, 3, 457-484. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-2063(99)00009-4

Sullivan, S.E., & Arthur, M.B. (2006). The evolution of boundaryless career concept: Examining physical and psychological mobility. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 69(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.09.001

Sullivan, S. E., Carden, W. A., & Martin, D. F. (1998). Careers in the next millennium: Directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review. 8, 165-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(98)80003-X

Suutari, V. (2003). Global managers: Career orientation, career tracks, life-style implications and commitment. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 18(3), 185-207. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940310465225

Tams, S., & Arhur, M. B. (2010). New Directions for boundaryless careers: Agency and interdependence in a changing world. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 31, 629-646. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.712

Thorndike, E.L. (1934). Prediction of vocational success. Oxford University Press.

Torres-Coronas, T., & Arias-Olivia, M. (2005). E-human resources management: Managing knowledge people. Idea Group Publishing.

Tyson, S., & York, A. (1989). Personnel management. (2nd edn.). Houghton Mifflin Company.

Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1977). Career development. (J. R. Hackman, and J. L. Suttle, Eds.). Improving life at work. Goodyear.

Van Maanen, J. (1982). Getting into fishing: Observations on the social identities of New England fishermen. Urban Life. 11 (1), 27-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124168201100102

Van Maanen, J., & Barley, S. (1984). Occupational communities: Culture and control in organizations. (B. Staw, & L. Cummings, Eds.). Research in organizational behavior. 6. JAI.

Van Buren III, H. J. (2003). Boundaryless careers and employability obligations. Business Ethics Quarterly. 13(2), 131-149. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3857656

Volberda, H. W. (1996). Toward the flexible form: How to remain vital in hyper competitive markets. Organizational Science. 7(4), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.4.359

Warner, W. L., & Abegglen, J. (1955). Occupational mobility in American business and industry. University of Minnesota Press.

Weick, K. E., & Berlinger, L. R. (1989). Career improvisation in self-designing organizations. (M. B. Arthur, D. T. Hall, & B. S. Lawrence, Eds.). Handbook of career theory, Cambridge University Press.

White, M., Hill, S., McGovern, P., Mills, C., & Smeaton, D. (2003). ‘High performance’ management practices, working hours and work-life balance. British Journal of Industrial Relations. 41(2), 175-195. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8543.00268

Whyte, W. (1956). The organization man. Simon and Schuster.

Wolfe, A. (1998). One nation after all: What middle-class Americans really think about god, family, poverty, racism, welfare, homosexuality, immigration, the left, the right, and each other. Viking.

Webster (1996). Webster's third new international dictionary, unabridged. Merdam-Webster.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-01

How to Cite

Karakus, F. (2021). A retrospective view from traditional to boundaryless career and career success. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 10(3), 65–81. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i3.1131

Issue

Section

Strategic Approach to Business Ecosystem and Organizational Development