Black consumers perceptions towards luxury brands in South Africa
Keywords:luxury brands, black consumers, uniqueness, rarity, functional value, financial value
AbstractThe paper determines the black consumers’ perceptions towards luxury brands in South Africa. The purchase of luxury brands has been on the rise locally and internationally. Global brands have been investing in SA by expanding to the region. The demand for luxury brands has also increased over the past decades. In SA, the middle-class group has also increased, particularly the black middle class which increased the market for luxury brands. To achieve the objectives of the study, a survey was conducted among black consumers in Thohoyandou, Venda, South Africa. Data were collected by two fieldworkers who intercepted shoppers visiting a regional mall in the area. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25. The descriptives, factor analysis, and ANOVA were analyzed to achieve the objectives of the study. The findings of the study reveal that black consumers are more influenced by the rarity and uniqueness of the brands followed by the financial and functional values of the brands. Black consumers’ perceptions towards luxury brands were found to differ across age and income groups but did not differ across gender and education levels. Organizations targeting black consumers must design brands that are rare and unique and ensure that brands deliver the financial and functional values desired by black consumers
Albeck, W., Huth, S. & Braun, M. (2014). Winning poor consumers in Africa: Best practises from mobile network operators. International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, 6(4):340-355.
Alvandi, M., Fazli, S & Najafi, S. (2013). Investigating the impact of self on attitudes toward luxury brands among teens in Iran International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5 (7): 854-865.
Amatulli, C & Guido, G. (2012). Externalised vs. internalised consumption of luxury goods: propositions and implications for luxury retail marketing, The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 22:2, 189-207.
Athwal, N., Wells, V.K., Carrigan, M & Claudia E. Henninger, C.E. (2019). Sustainable Luxury Marketing: A Synthesis and Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 00:1–22.
Atwal, G. & Bryson, D. (2013). The luxury market in Africa – emerging consumer empowerment is creating a luxurious future. [Online] Available at: theafricanbusinessreview.com/wp.../TABR_Dec_2013_20-22_HQ.pdf [Accessed 6 July 2014].
Berthon, P., Pitt, L., Parent, M & Berthon, J. (2009). Aesthetics and Ephemerality: observing and preserving the luxury brand. California Management, 52(1):45-66.
Bills, A. (2017). Luxury Brands in the South African Emerging Market: An empirical study of the relationship between consumer personality traits and purchase intentions towards luxury brands. Dissertation: Vega School.
Busitech. (2019). This is how many South Africans are worth more than R420 million
Cham, T.H., Ng, C.K.Y., Lim, Y.M & Cheng, B.L.( 2019). Factors Influencing Clothing Interest and Purchase Intention: A Study of Generation Y Consumers in Malaysia. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research.
Chen, J & Kim, S. (2013). A Comparison of Chinese Consumers’ Intentions to Purchase Luxury Fashion Brands for Self-Use and for Gifts. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25:29–44.
Chipp, K., Kleyn, N & Manzi, T. (2011). Catch Up and Keep Up: Relative Deprivation and Conspicuous Consumption in an Emerging Market. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(2):117-134.
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2006). Business Research Methods.9th Edition. McGraw-Hill.
Cronje, A., Jacobs, B & Retief, A. (2016). Black urban consumers’ status consumption of clothing brands in the emerging South African market. International Journal of Consumer Studies, (40):754–764.
De Barnier, V & Rodina, I. (2004). Which luxury perceptions affect most consumer purchase behavior? A cross-cultural exploratory study in France, the United Kingdom and Russia. Unpublished paper. Accessed at, http://archives.marketing-trends-congress.com/2006/Materiali/Paper/Fr/DeBarnier_Rodina_ValetteFlorence.pdf.
Deloitte. (2017). Emerging market insights The coming emerging market demand shock. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/za/Documents/africa/DeloitteZA_Demand_%20Shock_%20Sep2017.pdf
Deloitte. (2015). Accessed at https://www2.deloitte.com/za/en/pages/consumer-business/articles/luxury-brands-powers-of-luxury.html.
Deloitte. (2014). Luxury brands turn to Africa as the next growth frontier – Deloitte.
Dubihlela, J & Dubihlela, D. (2017). Young South African Consumers’ Conspicuous Consumption Patterns and their Status-Brand-Shopping Behaviour. J Soc Sci, 53(3): 128-136.
Dubois, B . , Laurent , G . and Czellar , S. (2001). Consumer Rapport to Luxury: Analyzing Complex and Ambivalent Attitudes . HEC, Jouy en Josas, France. Consumer research working paper no. 736.
Eastman, J.K., Goldsmith, R.E & Flynn, L.R (1999). Status Consumption in Consumer Behavior: Scale Development and Validation, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7:3, 41-52, DOI: 10.1080/10696679.1999.11501839.
Hagtveded , H & Patrick , V. (2009 ) The broad embrace of luxury: Hedonic potential as a driver of brand extendibility . Journal of Consumer Psychology 19 (4) : 608 – 619.
Hamelin, N & Thaichon, P. (2016). Consumer motives and impact of western media on the Moroccan luxury buyer. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 32:164–170.
Hennigs, N., Wiedmann, K., Klarmann, C & Behrens, S. (2015). The complexity of value in the luxury industry: From consumers’ individual value perception to luxury consumption", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 43(10/11):922-939.
Hing, K., Chen A.H., Peng, N., Rungpaka, H., Tiwsajul, A & Chou C. (2011). Antecedents of luxury brand purchase intention, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20(6): 457 – 467.
Kapferer J.N. (2017). Managing luxury brands. In Kapferer J.N., Kernstock J., Brexendorf T. and Powell S. (eds), Advances in Luxury Brand Management. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kapferer, J. N. (2012). Abundant rarity: The key to luxury growth. Business Horizons, 55(5), 453-462).
KPMG. (2016). Luxury goods and wealth management in Africa. http://www.blog.kpmgafrica.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Luxury-Goods-and-Wealth-Management-in-Africa-2016.pdf
KPMG. (2015). Sector report: Luxury Goods in Africa. https://www.africanbusinesscentral.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Luxury-Goods-in-Africa-A-Maturing-Sector-KPMG.pdf.
Kaus, W. (2013). Conspicuous consumption and “race”: Evidence from South Africa. Journal of Development Economics 100:63–73.
Lee, L.W. K. (2016) Luxury retail brands and their consumers in emerging markets: developing mobile marketing and sustaining the brand value, Durham theses, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/11738/.
Li, G., Li, G & Kambele, Z. (2012). Luxury fashion brand consumers in China: Perceived value, fashion lifestyle, and willingness to pay. Journal of Business Research, 65: 1516–1522.
Lodestar Marketing Research. (2015). The luxury fashion industry in South Africa. Switzerland Global Enterprise. http://www.iberglobal.com/files/2016-2/sudafrica_luxury_fashion_swiss.pdf.
Madyibi, S. (2017). The Relationship between Conspicuous Consumption and Poverty in Developing Countries: Evidence from South Africa. Thesis: University of Western Cape.
Peshkova, A. (2013). Symbolic consumption of luxury goods: example of fashion luxury market in Russia. Dissertation: University of Kassel.
Rice, X. (2013). Africa’s Wealthy Revel in Luxury Labels. Accessed at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e61f123c-8713-11e2-bde6-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2RfXKKcpW.
Roux, E., Tafani, E & Vigneron, F. (2017). Values associated with luxury brand consumption and the role of gender. Journal of Business Research, 71: 102-113.
Scheepers, S. (2017). Luxury value perceptions that drove South Africa female consumers purchase intent for luxury exotic leather accessories. Dissertation: University of Pretoria.
Shukla, P. (2012). The influence of value perceptions on luxury purchase intentions in developedand emerging markets", International Marketing Review, 29(6):574-596.
Steinfield, L. (2015). Consumer Types versus Stereotypes: Exploring Social Tensions in the Luxury Market of South Africa. Saïd Business School Research Papers. Accessed at file:///C:/Users/makhikm/Downloads/Steinfield2015ConsumerTypesversusStereotypes-ExploringSocialTensionsintheLuxuryMarketofSouthAfrica.pdf.
Stiehler, B.E. (2017). Identification and assessment of luxury brand segments in the emerging markets: Case of South Africa. Doctoral Thesis: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Industrial Marketing, INDEK, Stockholm, Sweden.
Stiehler B., Lee L.W. (2016) Luxury Branding in Emerging Markets. In: Obal M., Krey N., Bushardt C. (eds) Let’s Get Engaged! Crossing the Threshold of Marketing’s Engagement Era. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11815-4_25.
Steyn, L. (2013) The black-belt economy kicks in. Mail & Guardian. [WWW document]. URL http://mg.co.za/article/2013-05-03-00-the-black-belt-economy-kicks-in. Accessed 19 September 2019.
Truong, Y. (2010). Personal aspirations and the consumption of luxury goods. International Journal of Market Research, 52(5):655–673.
Truong, Y., Simmons, G., McColl, R & Kitchen, P.J. (2008). Status and Conspicuousness – Are They Related? Strategic Marketing Implications for Luxury Brands. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 16:3, 189-203.
Tynan, C. , McKechnie , S . and Chhuon , C . (2010). Co-creating value for luxury brands. Journal of Business Research 63 (11):1156 – 1263.
Vel, P & Rodrigues, J. (2013). Online Purchase of luxury products in the U.A.E. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. International Journal of Social, Human Science and Engineering 7(7):
Wang, Y., Sun S & Song, Y. (2011). Chinese Luxury Consumers: Motivation, attitude and behavior, Journal of Promotion Management, 17:3, 345-359.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 K Mercy Makhitha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors contributing to IJRBS agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution- 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. Authors retain the copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to IJRBS. However, authors are required to transfer copyrights associated with commercial use to the Publisher. The authors agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other languages, without the written consent of the Publisher. The Editors reserve the right to edit or otherwise alter all contributions, but authors will receive proofs for approval before publication