Benevolent paternalistic leadership behavior and follower's radical creativity

The mediating role of follower's voice behavior and moderating role of follower's power distance orientation

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i3.1142

Keywords:

Benevolent Paternalistic Leadership Behavior, Followers Voice Behavior, Followers Power Distance Orientation, Followers Radical Creativity

Abstract

The present study investigates the follower's voice behavior (FVB) as a mediator and follower power distance orientation (FPDO) as a moderator in relationship with Benevolent Paternalistic Leadership Behavior (BPLB) and followers' radical creativity (FRC) with an Asian context based on the social exchange and social learning theory. The study is quantitative and deductive, which surveyed 272 manufacturing industry leaders-followers used to collect the data. Findings show that BPLB with higher follower’s voice behavior directly or indirectly enhances the FRC. When the leader-follower collaborative exchange or interactions are high/low, followers' responsibility and accountability are also high/low, which determines follower’s radical creativity. In contrast, the leader-follower relationship is obfuscated and blinded when the leader's subordinates' cooperative voice engagement or involvement is low congruously. Manufacturing industries should engage in leadership training that can promote creativity and innovation. Although considering the limitation and the study provides the theoretical, managerial, and practical implication for the managers, policymakers, governmental authority, and society

References

Aafaqi, R. (2004). Organizational leadership in the Malaysian context’. Leading in High Growth Asia: Managing Relationship for Teamwork and Change, 109.

Abdollahi, A., Talib, M. A., Yaacob, S. N., & Ismail, Z. (2015). Problem-solving skills appraisal mediates hardiness and suicidal ideation among Malaysian undergraduate students. PLoS One, 10(4), e0122222.

Amabile, T M. (2012). Componential theory of creativity [Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 12-096]. Encyclopedia of Management Theory. Cambridge, MA: Sage. https://doi.org/10(9781452276090), n42.

Amabile, Teresa M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(2), 357.

Amabile, Teresa M. (1988). A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10(1), 123–167.

Baer, M. (2012). Putting creativity to work: The implementation of creative ideas in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 55(5), 1102–1119.

Barrow, J. C. (1977). The variables of leadership: A review and conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 2(2), 231–251.

Bennett, T. M. (2009). A study of the management leadership style preferred by IT subordinates. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 13(2), 1.

Brown, S. P., Jones, E., & Leigh, T. W. (2005). The attenuating effect of role overload on relationships linking self-efficacy and goal level to work performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 972.

Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. routledge.

Cai, W., Lysova, E. I., Khapova, S. N., & Bossink, B. A. G. (2019). Does entrepreneurial leadership foster creativity among employees and teams? The mediating role of creative efficacy beliefs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 203–217.

Carmeli, A., Reiter-Palmon, R., & Ziv, E. (2010). Inclusive leadership and employee involvement in creative tasks in the workplace: The mediating role of psychological safety. Creativity Research Journal, 22(3), 250–260.

Carnevale, J. B., Huang, L., Crede, M., Harms, P., & Uhl?Bien, M. (2017). Leading to stimulate employees’ ideas: A quantitative review of leader–member exchange, employee voice, creativity, and innovative behavior. Applied Psychology, 66(4), 517–552.

Chan, S. C. H., & Mak, W. (2012). Benevolent leadership and follower performance: The mediating role of leader–member exchange (LMX). Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 285–301.

Chan, S. C., & Mak, W.-M. (2009). Benevolent leadership, leader?member exchange (LMX), followers’ performance: An extension of leadership theory in a nonprofit organization. Unpublished Manuscript.

Chen, A. S.-Y., & Hou, Y.-H. (2016). The effects of ethical leadership, voice behavior and climates for innovation on creativity: A moderated mediation examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 27(1), 1–13.

Chen, C. C., & Farh, J. (2010). Developments in understanding Chinese leadership: Paternalism and its elaborations, moderations, and alternatives.

Chen, X.-P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T.-J., Farh, J.-L., & Cheng, B.-S. (2014). Affective trust in Chinese leaders: Linking paternalistic leadership to employee performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 796–819.

Cheng, B.-S., Shieh, P., & Chou, L. (2002). The principal’s leadership, leader-member exchange quality, and the teacher’s extra-role behavior: The effects of transformational and paternalistic leadership. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 17(105161), 1983.

Cheng, B. S., Huang, M. P., & Chou, L. F. (2002). Paternalistic leadership and its effectiveness: Evidence from Chinese organizational teams. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 3(1), 85–112.

Cheng, Bor?Shiuan, Chou, L., Wu, T., Huang, M., & Farh, J. (2004). Paternalistic leadership and subordinate responses: Establishing a leadership model in Chinese organizations. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 7(1), 89–117.

Cheng, Borshiunan, Chou, L., Huang, M., Farh, L. J. L., & Peng, S. (2003). A triad model of paternalistic leadership: Evidence from business organizations in Mainland China. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 20, 209.

Chiu, C., & Yang, C. (1987). Chinese subjects’ dilemmas: Humility and cognitive laziness as problems in using rating scales. Bulletin of the Hong Kong Psychological Society.

Cole, M. S., & Carter, M. Z. (2013). Leader – Team Congruence in Power Distance Values and Team Effectiveness?: The Mediating Role of Procedural Justice Climate. 98(6), 962–973. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034269

Cole, M. S., Carter, M. Z., & Zhang, Z. (2013). Leader–team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: The mediating role of procedural justice climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(6), 962.

Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26(3), 435–462.

De Vet, A. J., & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2007). The influence of articulation, self?monitoring ability, and sensitivity to others on creativity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(4), 747–760.

Dedahanov, A. T., Lee, D. H., Rhee, J., & Yoon, J. (2016a). Entrepreneur’s paternalistic leadership style and creativity: The mediating role of employee voice. Management Decision, 54(9), 2310–2324. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-11-2015-0537

Dedahanov, A. T., Lee, D. H., Rhee, J., & Yoon, J. (2016b). Entrepreneur’s paternalistic leadership style and creativity. Management Decision.

Delmestri, G., & Walgenbach, P. (2005). Mastering techniques or brokering knowledge? Middle managers in Germany, Great Britain and Italy. Organization Studies, 26(2), 197–220.

Den Hartog, D. N., & De Hoogh, A. H. B. (2009). Empowering behaviour and leader fairness and integrity: Studying perceptions of ethical leader behaviour from a levels-of-analysis perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18(2), 199–230.

Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869–884.

Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461–488.

Dorfman, P. W., & Howell, J. P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in International Comparative Management, 3(1), 127–150.

Dutton, J. E., & Ashford, S. J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of Management Review, 18(3), 397–428.

Dyne, Linn Van, Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1359–1392.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350–383.

Farh, J.-L., & Cheng, B.-S. (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations. In Management and organizations in the Chinese context (pp. 84–127). Springer.

Farh, J. L., Liang, J., Chou, L. F., & Cheng, B. S. (2008). Paternalistic leadership in Chinese organizations: Research progress and future research directions. In Leadership and management in China: Philosophies, theories, and practices (pp. 171–205). Cambridge University Press.

Farh, L. J. L., Cheng, B. S., & Chou, L. F. (2000). A triad model of paternalistic leadership: Constructs and measurement. Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, 14, 3.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Ghosh, K. (2015). Benevolent leadership in not-for-profit organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.

Gil-Marques, M., & Moreno-Luzon, M. D. (2013). Driving human resources towards quality and innovation in a highly competitive environment. International Journal of Manpower, 34(8), 839–860.

Gong, Y., Huang, J.-C., & Farh, J.-L. (2009). Employee learning orientation, transformational leadership, and employee creativity: The mediating role of employee creative self-efficacy. Academy of Management Journal, 52(4), 765–778.

Grant, A. M., & Rothbard, N. P. (2013). When in doubt, seize the day? Security values, prosocial values, and proactivity under ambiguity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(5), 810.

Gu, Q., Hempel, P. S., & Yu, M. (2020). Tough Love and Creativity: How Authoritarian Leadership Tempered by Benevolence or Morality Influences Employee Creativity. British Journal of Management, 31(2), 305–324. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12361

Guo, Y. (2020). Inclusive leadership , leader identification and employee voice behavior?: The moderating role of power distance.

Hair, J., Anderson, R., Tatham, R., & Black, W. (2006). Multivariate data analysis 6th edition prentice hall. New Jersey.

Hair Jr, J. F., Howard, M. C., & Nitzl, C. (2020). Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM using confirmatory composite analysis. Journal of Business Research, 109, 101–110.

Hair Jr, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107–123.

Hakimian, F., Farid, H., Ismail, M. N., & Ismail, I. A. (2014). The role of paternalistic leadership on fostering employees’ innovative behavior: Moderating effects of job insecurity. International Journal of Research in Business and Technology, 4(2), 446–453.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, leadership, and organization: do American theories apply abroad? Organizational Dynamics, 9(1), 42–63.

House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Sage publications.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424.

Huang, X., Van de Vliert, E., & Van der Vegt, G. (2005). Breaking the silence culture: Stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally. Management and Organization Review, 1(3), 459–482.

Jackson, T., & Bak, M. (1998). Foreign companies and Chinese workers: employee motivation in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Karakas, F., & Sarigollu, E. (2012). Benevolent leadership: Conceptualization and construct development. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(4), 537–553.

Kim, U. M. (1994). Significance of paternalism and communalism in the occupational welfare system of Korean firms: A national survey. cross cultural research and methodology series-sage-, 18(1), 251.

Kirkman, B. L., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual Power Distance Orientation And Follower Reactions To Transformational Leaders?: A Cross-Level , Cross-Cultural Examination The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. 52(4), 744–764.

Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3), 285–320.

Kirkman, B. L., & Shapiro, D. L. (2001). The impact of cultural values on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in self-managing work teams: The mediating role of employee resistance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(3), 557–569.

Kozak, M. A., & Uca, S. (2008). Effective factors in the constitution of leadership styles: A study of Turkish hotel managers. Anatolia, 19(1), 117–134.

LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853.

Li, X., Yang, H., Wang, H., & Jia, J. (2020). Family socioeconomic status and home-based parental involvement: A mediation analysis of parental attitudes and expectations. Children and Youth Services Review, 105111.

Li, Y., & Sun, J.-M. (2015a). Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior: A cross-level examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 172–189.

Li, Y., & Sun, J. (2015b). Traditional Chinese leadership and employee voice behavior?: A cross-level examination. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 172–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.08.001

Lin, W., Ma, J., Zhang, Q., Li, J. C., & Jiang, F. (2018). How is Benevolent Leadership Linked to Employee Creativity? The Mediating Role of Leader–Member Exchange and the Moderating Role of Power Distance Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 152(4), 1099–1115. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3314-4

Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. (2010). I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications, and transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 189–202.

Madjar, N., Greenberg, E., & Chen, Z. (2011). Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 730.

Martinez, P. G. (2005). Paternalism as a positive form of leadership in the Latin American context: Leader benevolence, decision-making control and human resource management practices. Managing Human Resources in Latin America: An Agenda for International Leaders, 75–93.

Morrison, Elizabeth W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373–412.

Morrison, Elizabeth Wolef, & Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25(4), 706–725.

Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe, & Milliken, F. J. (2003). Speaking up, remaining silent: The dynamics of voice and silence in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1353–1358.

Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (2013). Employee—organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. Academic press.

Ng, K. Y., & Van Dyne, L. (2005). Antecedents and performance consequences of helping behavior in work groups: A multilevel analysis. Group & Organization Management, 30(5), 514–540.

Ng, T. W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Employee voice behavior: A meta?analytic test of the conservation of resources framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 216–234.

Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: Personal and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39(3), 607–634.

Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2006). Leader–member exchange (LMX), paternalism, and delegation in the Turkish business culture: An empirical investigation. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(2), 264–279.

Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008a). ‘ Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research’: Erratum.

Pellegrini, E. K., & Scandura, T. A. (2008b). Paternalistic leadership: A review and agenda for future research. Journal of Management, 34(3), 566–593.

Pisitsankkhakarn, R., & Vassanadumrongdee, S. (2020). Enhancing purchase intention in circular economy: An empirical evidence of remanufactured automotive product in Thailand. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 156, 104702.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879.

Qu, R., Janssen, O., & Shi, K. (2015). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The mediating role of follower relational identification and the moderating role of leader creativity expectations. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 286–299.

Qu, R., Janssen, O., & Shi, K. (2017). Leader–member exchange and follower creativity: the moderating roles of leader and follower expectations for creativity. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(4), 603–626. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1105843

Rahi, S., Mansour, M. M. O., Alghizzawi, M., & Alnaser, F. M. (2019). Integration of UTAUT model in internet banking adoption context. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing.

Rehman Khan, S. A., & Yu, Z. (2020). Assessing the eco-environmental performance: an PLS-SEM approach with practice-based view. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 1–19.

Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Hair, J. F. (2017). Partial least squares structural equation modeling. Handbook of Market Research, 26(1), 1–40.

Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S. K., & Cha, S. E. (2007). Embracing Transformational Leadership?: Team Values and the Impact of Leader Behavior on Team Performance. 92(4), 1020–1030. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.4.1020

Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader-member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and data-analytic practices. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(1), 63–113.

Shalley, C. E. (1991). Effects of productivity goals, creativity goals, and personal discretion on individual creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 179.

Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity?: Where Should We Go from Here?? 30(6), 933–958. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.007

Sparrowe, R. T., & Liden, R. C. (1997). Process and structure in leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Review, 22(2), 522–552.

Sun, L., Pan, W., & Chow, I. H. S. (2014). The role of supervisor political skill in mentoring: Dual motivational perspectives. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(2), 213–233.

Tangirala, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2008). Exploring nonlinearity in employee voice: The effects of personal control and organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 51(6), 1189–1203.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2002). Creative self-efficacy: Its potential antecedents and relationship to creative performance. Academy of Management Journal, 45(6), 1137–1148.

Tierney, P., & Farmer, S. M. (2004). The Pygmalion process and employee creativity. Journal of Management, 30(3), 413–432.

Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52(3), 591–620.

Uhl-Bien, M., Tierney, P. S., Graen, G. B., & Wakabayashi, M. (1990). Company paternalism and the hidden-investment process: Identification of the" right type" for line managers in leading Japanese organizations. Group & Organization Studies, 15(4), 414–430.

Van Dyne, L, Cummings, L. L., & Parks, J. M. (1995). Extra role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity. LL Curamings, BM Staw, eds. Research in Organizational Behavior, 17, 215–285.

Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1275.

Wang, A.-C., Chiang, J. T.-J., Tsai, C.-Y., Lin, T.-T., & Cheng, B.-S. (2013). Gender makes the difference: The moderating role of leader gender on the relationship between leadership styles and subordinate performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 122(2), 101–113.

Wang, An-chih, & Cheng, B. (2009). When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity?? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy. (1). https://doi.org/10.1002/job

Wang, An?Chih, & Cheng, B. (2010). When does benevolent leadership lead to creativity? The moderating role of creative role identity and job autonomy. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(1), 106–121.

Wang, P., & Rode, J. C. (2010). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The moderating effects of identification with leader and organizational climate. Human Relations, 63(8), 1105–1128.

Wijaya, N. H. S. (2019). Proactive personality, LMX, and voice behavior: employee–supervisor sex (Dis) similarity as a moderator. Management Communication Quarterly, 33(1), 86–100.

Wong, K. K.-K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1–32.

Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18(2), 293–321.

Wu, M., Huang, X., Li, C., & Liu, W. (2012). Perceived interactional justice and trust?in?supervisor as mediators for paternalistic leadership. Management and Organization Review, 8(1), 97–121.

Xu, F., & Wang, X. (2019). Leader creativity expectations and follower radical creativity: Based on the perspective of creative process. Chinese Management Studies, 13(1), 214–234. https://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-04-2018-0489

Zhang, Y., Huai, M., & Xie, Y. (2015). Paternalistic leadership and employee voice in China: A dual process model. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(1), 25–36.

Zhou, J. (2003). When the presence of creative coworkers is related to creativity: role of supervisor close monitoring, developmental feedback, and creative personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(3), 413.

Downloads

Published

2021-05-01

How to Cite

Nabi, N., & Liu, Z. (2021). Benevolent paternalistic leadership behavior and follower’s radical creativity: The mediating role of follower’s voice behavior and moderating role of follower’s power distance orientation. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 10(3), 156–176. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i3.1142

Issue

Section

Organizational Culture, Leadership and Human Resources Management