The Integration of Entrepreneurship Education in to Ethiopian Universities Formal Curriculum


  • Wudu Melese Tarekegne Jimma University
  • Alebachew Hailu Gelaneh, Mr



Entrepreneurship education, University, Integration; Formal Curriculum



This study was aimed at investigating how Ethiopian universities integrate entrepreneurship education into the formal curriculum. To achieve this objective descriptive survey research design was used. Data were collected from university students, instructors, and department heads. Accordingly, four universities were selected as sample universities by using simple random sampling technique. From these sample universities departments that give entrepreneurship course with all its students, instructors and department heads were taken as sample of the study. Data were collected by using questionnaire, interview, and document analysis from the participants. The result shows that in Ethiopian higher education institutions, entrepreneurship education curriculum and teaching methods is developed in house; have no a formalized national or international exchange of good practice in entrepreneurship education and did not include entrepreneurs in the development of entrepreneurship teaching materials. In addition, since the entrepreneurship education course is not integrated to all programs only few students took it as a result students did not  develop entrepreneurial behavior, skills, knowledge in their stay in the university. The predominant methods of teaching used were lecture and case study. The major barriers for the development of entrepreneurship education identified are lack of funding available to support the entrepreneurship education and good-quality entrepreneurship education materials, lack of support from the top management and lack of strategic integration of entrepreneurship education in their institutions. 


Author Biography

Alebachew Hailu Gelaneh, Mr

Curriculum expert in Addis Ababa University, South compus, Ethiopia


Alvarez, S. A., & Busenitz, L. W. (2004). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27, 755-775.

Anderson, A. R., Kirkwood, S. and Jack, S. L. (1998). Teaching Entrepreneurship: A Mentoring

Experience. Paper presented at Babson Conference, Belgium.

Brijlal, P. (2008) .The state of entrepreneurship education at tertiary institutions in the Western Cape. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC), Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 25-36.

Brockhaus, R. (1994). Entrepreneurship Education and Research Outside North America. In Hoy, F., Brock, W. A. and Evans, D.S. (1989). Small Business Economics. Small business economics, 1, 7-20.

Carree, M. A., Thurik, A. R. (2003), The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth. In

Acs, Z.J., Audretsch D. B. (eds.) Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research: An Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers :Boston, 437-471.

Co, M.J. and Mitchell, B. (2006) .Entrepreneurship education in South Africa: a nationwide survey. Education &Training, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp. 48-359.

Friedrich C & Visser K 2004. South African Entrepreneurship Education and Training. De Doorns: Leap Publishing.

Galloway, L., Anderson, M., Brown. W., & Wilson, L. (2005). Enterprise skills for economy. Education and Training, 47, 7-17.

Ghelawdewos Araia(2012), Reflections on the Development of Higher Education in Ethiopia: (accessed on august.20, 2013) .

Gibb, Allan (2006). Entrepreneurship / Enterprise Education in Schools and Colleges:Are we really building the onion or peeling it away? National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship Working Paper, 039/2006; pp.1-34

Hannon, Paul, D. (2006.) Teaching pigeons to dance, Education and Training, Vol. 48; No.5. pp. 296-308

Hansemark, Ove. (1998). The Effects of an Entrepreneurship Programme on Need for Achievement and Locus of Control of Reinforcement. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research 4 (1): 28–50.

Heinonen, J., Kovalainen, A., & Pukkinen, T. (2006). Global entrepreneurship monitor,executive report Finland. Turku school of economics and business administration, series B2/2006.

Henry, C., Hill, F. and Leitch, C. (2005) .Entrepreneurship Education and Training: Can Entrepreneur be Taught? Part I., Education and Training Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp.98-111.

Hitt, M. A. & Reed, T.S. (2000). Entrepreneurship in the new competitive landscape. In: Entrepreneurship as Strategy. (eds) Meyer, G.D. & Heppard, K.A. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Isaacs, E., Visser, K., Friedrich, C. and Brijlal, P. (2007) .Entrepreneurship education and training at the Further Education and Training (FET) level in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, Vol. 27 No. 4, pp. 613-29.

Jackson L. S. (2009). Research methods and statistics a critical thinking approach. New York: Wadsworth

Izquierdo, E. & Buelens, M. (2008). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions: the influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and attitudes. USA: Ohio

Kabongo, J.D. and Okpara, J.O. (2010).Entrepreneurship education in sub-Saharan African

Universities. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 296-308.

Katz, J.A. (2004). Survey of Endowed Positions in Entrepreneurship and Related Fields in the United States, Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

Kok, W. (2004) .Kok Report. report of an independent high-level expert group, headed by formed Dutch Prime Minister Wim Kok, presented to European Commission and the European Council, November.

Kuratko, D. (2005). The Emergence of Entrepreneurship Education: Development, Trends,and Challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, p, 577-597

McMullan, W. E., Chrisman, J.J. and Vesper, K. H. (2001). Some problems in using subjective measures of effectiveness to evaluate entrepreneurial assistance programs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26 (1), 37-54.

Ministry of Education [MOE] (2008). National Technical & Vocational Education and Training Strategy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Ministry of Education [MOE] (2015). Education Sector Development Program IV (ESDP V), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Nabi, G. and Holden, R. (2008). Graduate entrepreneurship: intentions, education and training. Education &Training, Vol. 50 No. 7, pp. 545-51.

Peterman, N.E. and Kennedy, J. (2003). Enterprise Education: Influencing Students’ Perception of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28(4), 129-141.

Solomon, G.T., Duffy, S. and Tarabishy, A. (2002). The State of Entrepreneurship Education in the United States: a Nationwide Survey and Analysis. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 1(1), 1-22.

Thompson, E.R. (2009). Individual entrepreneurial constructs clarifications and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, May, 669-694.

Volkmann, C., Wilson, K., Mariotti, S., Rabuzzi, D., Vyakarnam, S., Sepulveda, A. (2009).Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs Unlocking entrepreneurial capabilities to meet the global challenges of the 21st Century - A Report of the Global Education Initiative., World Economic Forum, Switzerland, April 2009.




How to Cite

Tarekegne, W. M., & Gelaneh, A. H. (2019). The Integration of Entrepreneurship Education in to Ethiopian Universities Formal Curriculum. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 8(2), 61–73.