A comparative analysis of flexible working patterns in Germany and Turkey
PDF

Keywords

Flexible Working Patterns, Flexibility in Working Life, COVID-19, Pandemic, Germany, Turkey.

How to Cite

Aydınlı Kulak, F., & Tüzüner, V. (2020). A comparative analysis of flexible working patterns in Germany and Turkey. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 9(4), 01-14. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v9i4.714

Abstract

In this study, the extent of flexible working patterns beginning to replace the conventional working models is examined in companies in Turkey and Germany and the extent of flexible working patterns in the two countries is compared. The objectives of the study are to determine the prevalence of these patterns and to find out the similarities and differences regarding flexible working in the two countries. The flexible working patterns focused on in this study are weekend work, shiftwork, overtime work, part-time work, job sharing, flexitime, fixed-term contracts, home-based work, telecommuting, and compressed workweeks. The research, which is designed with the last round database of the CRANET Survey on Comparative Human Resource Management Research, includes the companies in Turkey and Germany of the 35 participating countries (154 companies from Turkey and 278 companies from Germany which makes a total of 432 companies). In the findings section, first of all, the prevalence of each flexible working pattern in the two countries has been presented. Chi-square analysis has been conducted for each of the flexible working patterns to find out if there are any significant differences in the prevalence of these models in the two countries. As a result, it is determined that the extent of the nine flexible working patterns differed in the two countries. This is to say that the prevalence of several flexible working patterns ensuring the work-life balance of the employees is higher in Germany whereas flexible patterns used for economic reasons and do not add value to the work-life balance of the employees are usually prevalent in Turkey. The only similarity between the two countries is the use of home-based work.  

https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v9i4.714
PDF

References

Acar, A.C., Aydınlı, F. & Yıldırım, O. (2005). 4857 sayılı İş Kanununda Yer Alan Başlıca Yeni Düzenlemelerin İnsan Kaynakları Yönetimi Açısından Değerlendirilmesi. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 34(2), 7-29.

Aktay, A.N. (1999). İş Hukukunda Esneklik Kavramının Ortaya Çıkışı ve Esneklik Uygulamaları. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 15, 53-61.

Aktekin, Ş. (2006). Belirli Süreli İş Sözleşmesinde Objektif Neden Kavramı ve AB Uygulamaları. Sicil, İş Hukuku Dergisi, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 42,100-105.

Aydınlı, F. (2007). Türkiye ve Almanya’daki İşletmelerde Esnek Çalışma Modellerine İlişkin Karşılaştırmalı Bir Araştırma, Yönetim, İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi İşletme İktisadı Enstitüsü Dergisi, 57, 67-90.

Baltes, B. B., Briggs, T. E., HuV, J. W., Wright, J. A., & Neuman, G. A. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 496–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.496

Bastelaer, A., Lemaître, G. & Marianna, P. (1997). The Definition of Part-Time Work for the Purpose of International Comparisons. OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers, No. 22, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/18151981

Brewster, C., Mayne, L. & Tregaskis, O. (1997). Flexible Working in Europe. Journal of World Business, 32(2),133-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(97)90004-3

Centel, T. (1999). Esneklik Uygulamaları ve Türkiye. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 15, 25-32.

Demircioğlu, A.M. & Engin, M. (2002). Dünyada ve Türkiye’de Esnek Çalışma. İstanbul Ticaret Odası, Yayın No:2002-52, İstanbul, Mega Ajans.

Ekin, N. (1999). Esneklik Çağı. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 15, 6-14.

Ertürk, Ş. (2000). Türk İş Hukukunda Evde Çalışma. Kamu-İş, İş Hukuku ve İktisat Dergisi, 5(3), 225-247.

Gümüş, M. (2005). Çalışma Yaşamımızda Yeni Bir Dönem: Esnek Çalışma Sürelerine Geçişte Yoğunlaştırılmış (Sıkıştırılmış) Çalışma. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 38, 51-62.

Güzel, A. (2000). İş Hukukunda Yeniden Yapılanma Süreci ve İşin Düzenlenmesi Konusunda Esneklik. Kamu-İş, İş Hukuku ve İktisat Dergisi, 5(3), 203-221.

Hill, E.J., Grzywacz, J.G., Allen, S., Blanchard, V.L., Matz-Costa, C., Shulkin, S. & Pitt-Catsouphes, M. (2008). Defining and conceptualizing workplace flexibility. Community, Work and Family, 11(2), 149-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/13668800802024678

Işık, R. (2003). ‘Esneklik’ Üzerine Bir Not. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 32, 107-111.

Jung, L. (2001), National Labour Law Profile: Federal Republic of Germany. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex, Reached: 25th April 2004.

Lepak, D. & Gowan, M. (2010). Human Resource Management: Managing Employees for Competitive Advantage. New York: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Lim, V.K.G., & Teo, T.S.H. (2000). To work or not to work at home: An empirical investigation of factors affecting attitudes towards teleworking. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(6), 560-566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940010373392

Mathis, R.L. & Jackson, J.H. (2007). Human Resource Management, 12th Edition, New York: Cengage Learning.

McCann, D. (2005). Working Time Laws: A Global Perspective (Findings from the ILO’s Conditions of Work and Employment Database). Geneva, International Labour Organization.

Özgener, Ş. (2005). Çalışma Hayatında Esnekliğin İşletme Verimliliği Üzerine Etkileri: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Çalışma. TODAİE Amme İdaresi Dergisi, 38(3), 51–79.

Papalexandris, N. & Kramar, R. (1997). Flexible working patterns: towards reconciliation of family and work. Employee Relations, 19(6), 581-595. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425459710193126

Prinz, T., (2006), Almanya’da Esnek Çalışma Süresi Modelleri. Zülfü Dicleli, Sicil, İş Hukuku Dergisi, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 41, 190–194.

Richter K.D., Acker J., Scholz F. & Niklewski G. (2010). Health promotion and work: prevention of shift work disorders in companies. EPMA Journal,1(4), 611–618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13167-010-0057-7

Shields, M. (2002). Shift work and health. Health Reports. 13(4), 11-33.

Stewart, G.L. & Brown, K.G. (2011). Human Resource Management: Linking Strategy to Practice. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Second Edition.

Tuncay, A.C. (1999). Değişim, Esneklik ve Türkiye İçin Çözüm Önerileri. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 15, 67-82.

Uyargil, C. (1984). Modern Örgüt Yaşamında Esnek Çalışma Saatleri. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(2), 110-118.

Visser, J., & Yerkes, M. (2008). Part-time work and the legacy of breadwinner welfare states: A panel study of women’s employment patterns in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, 1992-2002. In L. Kenworthy, & A. Hicks (Eds.), Method and substance in macrocomparative analysis (pp. 221-259). (Research methods series). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Yavuz, A. (1999). Çalışma Süresi Esnekliği ve Türleri. Mercek, Türkiye Metal Sanayicileri Sendikası, 15, 88-95.

Young, W.M. (1980). Shift work and flexible schedules: Are they compatible?. International Labor Review, 119(1), 1-24.

Labor Law No. 4857, 10th June 2003 dated ve 25134 no. Resmi Gazete.

http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/engish/convdisp1.htm, 1st June 2006.

http://www.einclusioneu.org/ShowCase.asp?CaseTitleID=1001&CaseID=2576&MenuID=189 Reached: 1st June 2006.

Eurostat,https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Employment_statistics#Rise_in_part-time_and_temporary_work

https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/industrial-relations-dictionary/telework Reached 28th April 2020.

www.uslegal.com, Reached: 29th April 2020.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.