Effects of hazard analysis and critical control points principles on food safety at national youth service in Nakuru County, Kenya


HACCP Principles, Critical Limits, Corrective Actions, Verification, Documentation and Records.

How to Cite

Onesmus, N. G., Makopondo, R., Kariuki, A., & Muchiri, M. (2020). Effects of hazard analysis and critical control points principles on food safety at national youth service in Nakuru County, Kenya. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 9(4), 314-322. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v9i4.751


This study examined the effect of hazard analysis and critical control points principles on food safety at the National Youth Service in Nakuru County; Kenya. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, HACCP) principle in food production and service areas is a requirement especially in all food handling stages, Successful implementation of the procedures based on the HACCP principles requires the full cooperation and commitment of food handlers’ requiring employees to undergo training. Food safety plays a significant role in the economic and health development of Nations by safeguarding the nation‘s health, enhancing tourism, hospitality, and international trade, the production, distribution, and consumption of safe food. The scope of the study was limited to NYS Catering unit kitchens in Gilgil College. The findings explain the hygiene and safety practices of other Academic kitchens in Kenya. The study adopted a mixed research methodology, this study adopted a census method; the reason being the total population was 121. The response from the quantitative data from the questionnaires was tabulated, coded, and processed by use of the statistical package for social sciences Data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. From the findings, the R and R2 value representing the simple correlation summary showed that 16.6 percent of HACCP principles can be explained by variance in food safety.  ANOVA results showed that the model applied was statistically significant to predict the outcome variable. The study also concludes that food-hygiene operating procedure that is documented and awareness too that food safety inspections by health inspectors help to ensure safe food handling practices are followed.



Aagaard, S. E. (2016). Take care: Food risk management and gendered household roles among Chinese women. http://hdl.handle.net/10852/52261

Abowitz, D., & Toole, T. (2010). Mixed method research: Fundamental issues of design,validity and reliability in construction research.". J. Constr. Eng. Manage.,10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943 7862.0000026, 108-116.

Al Busaidi, M. A., & Jukes, D. J. (2015). Assessment of Food Control Systems in the Sultanate of Oman. Food Control 51(0), 59-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.10.039

Al Yousuf, M., Taylor, E., & Taylor, J. (2015). Developing a Government Strategy to Meet International Standards of Food Safety Across the Hospitality Industry. WorldwideHospitality and Tourism Themes, 7(1), 4-16. https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-12-2014-0037

CDC. (2015). Preventing Future Outbreaks. Atlanta GA, USA. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24856869

Clayton, D., & Griffith, C. J. (2008). efficiency of an extended theory 0f planned behaviuor model for predicting cateres,hand hygenic practises. Internation journal ofenvironmental health,18, 83-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/09603120701358424

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2007.00096.x

Dawso Van Druff, C. A. (2012). Implementation of school districts' food safety plans and perceptions of support for food safety and training in child nutrition programs in one USDA region. Des Moines. https://doi.org/10.31274/etd-180810-767

Dzwolak, W. (2014). HACCP in small food businesses–The Polish experience. Food control, 36(1), 132-137.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.07.043

FAO. (2016). Consumers and food safety: A food industry perspective. Food, nutrition and agriculture. http://www.fao.org/3/V2890T/v2890t05.htm

Fowler, F. J. (2013). Survey research methods. Sage publications. https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230184.n3

Garayoa, R., Díez-Leturia, M., Bes-Rastrollo, M., García-Jalón, I., & Vitas, A. I. (2014). Catering services and HACCP: temperature assessment and surface hygiene control before and after audits and a specific training session. Food Control, 43, 193-198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.03.015

Jabbar, M. A., & Grace, D. (2012). Regulations for Safety of Animal Source Foods in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries: Current Status and Their Implications. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute. http://dx.doi.org/10.22004/ag.econ.181867

Lee, H. Y., Chik, W. N., Baka, F. A., Saari, N., & Mahyudin, N. A. (2012). Sanitation Practices Among Food Handlers in a Military Food Service Institution, Malaysia. Food and Nutrition Sciences , 3 (11), 1561-1566. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2012.311204

Nguz, K. (2007). Assessing Food Safety System in Sub-Saharan Countries: An Overview of Key Issues. Science Direct Journal 18 (2), 131-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2005.09.003

Powell, D. A., Jacob, C. J., & Chapman, B. J. (2011). Enhancing Food Safety Culture to Reduce Rates of Foodborne Illness. Food Control, 22(6), 817-822. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.12.009

Olielo, T. K., & Rombo, G. O. (2009). The Availability of Processed Fruit Products and their Contents of Vitamins A and C in Nairobi, Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 9(1), 565-579. http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/

Sharif, L., & Al-Malki, T. (2010). Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Taif University Students on Food Poisoning. Food Control, 21(1), 55–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.03.015

Shravani, S. (2012). Food Allergens and Food Safety: A Global Perspective with Respect to Codex Alimentarius. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, 2(8), 411-412. http://www.davidpublisher.org/Public/uploads/Contribute/5681e0174256e.pdf.

Silver, C., & Lewins, A. (2014). Using software in qualitative research: A step-by-step guide. Sage publications.Standard Newspaper. (May 19, 2015). http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2000162784/25-students rushed-to-hospital-over-cholera-scare-in-nakuru-where-the-disease-has-killed-15-people. Nairobi: standardmedia.co.ke.

Shukla, S., Shankar, R., & Singh, S. P. (2014). Food safety regulatory model in India. Food Control, 37, 401-413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.08.015

Tansey, G., & Worsley, A. (2014). The food system.Routledge. London: Pennine Pens. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203380932

Taylor, J. (2011). An exploration of food safety culture in a multi-cultural environment: next steps?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3(5), 455. https://doi.org/10.1108/17554211111185836

Todd, E. C., Michaels, B. S., Greig, J. D., Smith, D. L., Holah, J., & Bartleson, C. A. (2010). Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease: Part 7: Barriers to reduce contamination of food by workers. J. Food Prot 73, 1552–1565.

Walker, E., Pritchard, C., & Forsythe, S. (2003). Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and Prerequisite Programme Implementation in Small and Medium Size Food Businesses. Food Control, 14 (3), 169-174.

WHO (2015). Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/burden_nov07/en/ Accessed 21 April 2015

Yiannas. (2008). Food safety culture: Creating a behavior-based food safety management system. New York: Springer-Verlag, LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-72867-4

WHO (2007). Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals: A Compendium of Guidelines and Related Materials. Good Manufacturing Practices and Inspection 2(4), 12-15. https://books.google.co.ke/

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.