The nine year basic education policy and secondary school internal efficiency

A case study in Rwanda




Nine Year Basic Education, Internal efficiency, student-year, educational wastage, survival rate, Rwanda


This study examined the effect of implementing Nine Year Basic Education (9YBE) policy on secondary school internal efficiency. The study followed descriptive design. Data on students’ enrolments and repetitions for consecutive school years, cohort 2014/15 and 2017/18, were collected from all five lower secondary schools in Ngoma and Tumba Sectors using survey questionnaire. Besides, focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to collect views of head-teachers on the study variables. The reconstructed cohort flow analysis technique was used to determine indicators of internal efficiency. Summary statistics are presented in tables. Qualitative data from FGDs were analysed through thematic content analysis with consideration of similarities and differences. The findings revealed (i) a positive change in students' promotion and repetition rates, (ii) students’ survival rate to the last grade increased to 69.39% for the cohort 2017/18 from 50.72% for the cohort 2014/15 and (iii) wastage ratio declined from 1.62 for cohort 2014/15 to 1.33 for cohort 2017/18. Thus, school efficiency rose to 75.19% in 2017/18. Head-teachers attributed the positive change in internal efficiency indicators to the combination of 9YBE interventions including removal of school fees, school feeding, and flexibility in student progression and increasing day secondary school in proximity of home. However, persistent high dropout rates indicated that the implementation of 9YBE policy had not alleviated all disruptive forces against students’ participation rates. It was therefore suggested to relook at policy interventions to address individual students’ challenges at school and household levels and the management of older children in the school system.




How to Cite

Dufitumukiza, A., Ntakirutimana, E., Niyibizi, E., & Mukanziza, J. (2020). The nine year basic education policy and secondary school internal efficiency: A case study in Rwanda. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147- 4478), 9(6), 202–212.



Learning & Education